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The second-century AD orator Aelius Aristides attempted to derive natural symbols from the etymological roots of Athena's names to be aether , air , earth , and moon.
Athena was originally the Aegean goddess of the palace, who presided over household crafts and protected the king. A Mycenean fresco depicts two women extending their hands towards a central figure, who is covered by an enormous figure-eight shield;   this may depict the warrior-goddess with her palladion , or her palladion in an aniconic representation.
Nilsson and others have claimed that, in early times, Athena was either an owl herself or a bird goddess in general. It is generally agreed that the cult of Athena preserves some aspects of the Proto-Indo-European transfunctional goddess.
Plato notes that the citizens of Sais in Egypt worshipped a goddess known as Neith , [e] whom he identifies with Athena.
In her aspect of Athena Polias , Athena was venerated as the goddess of the city and the protectress of the citadel.
As Athena Promachos , she was believed to lead soldiers into battle. Marinus of Neapolis reports that when Christians removed the statue of the goddess from the Parthenon , a beautiful woman appeared in a dream to Proclus , a devotee of Athena, and announced that the "Athenian Lady" wished to dwell with him.
Athena was not only the patron goddess of Athens, but also other cities, including Argos , Sparta , Gortyn , Lindos , and Larisa.
The temple of Athena Alea in Tegea was an important religious center of ancient Greece. A strange accident happened in the course of building, which showed that the goddess was not averse to the work, but was aiding and co-operating to bring it to perfection.
One of the artificers, the quickest and the handiest workman among them all, with a slip of his foot fell down from a great height, and lay in a miserable condition, the physicians having no hope of his recovery.
When Pericles was in distress about this, the goddess [Athena] appeared to him at night in a dream, and ordered a course of treatment, which he applied, and in a short time and with great ease cured the man.
And upon this occasion it was that he set up a brass statue of Athena Hygeia, in the citadel near the altar, which they say was there before.
But it was Phidias who wrought the goddess's image in gold, and he has his name inscribed on the pedestal as the workman of it.
Athena was clearly associated with the owl from very early on;  in archaic images, she is frequently depicted with an owl perched on her hand.
In the Iliad 4. Another possible meaning may be "triple-born" or "third-born", which may refer to a triad or to her status as the third daughter of Zeus or the fact she was born from Metis, Zeus, and herself; various legends list her as being the first child after Artemis and Apollo, though other legends identify her as Zeus' first child.
In the classical Olympian pantheon, Athena was regarded as the favorite daughter of Zeus, born fully armed from his forehead.
After swallowing Metis, Zeus took six more wives in succession until he married his seventh and present wife, Hera. Hesiod states that Hera was so annoyed at Zeus for having given birth to a child on his own that she conceived and bore Hephaestus by herself ,  but in Imagines 2.
Fairbanks , the third-century AD Greek rhetorician Philostratus the Elder writes that Hera "rejoices" at Athena's birth "as though Athena were her daughter also.
In one version of the myth, Pallas was the daughter of the sea-god Triton ;  she and Athena were childhood friends, but Athena accidentally killed her during a friendly sparring match.
The palladion was a statue of Athena that was said to have stood in her temple on the Trojan Acropolis. In a founding myth reported by Pseudo-Apollodorus,  Athena competed with Poseidon for the patronage of Athens.
Pseudo-Apollodorus  records an archaic legend, which claims that Hephaestus once attempted to rape Athena, but she pushed him away, causing him to ejaculate on her thigh.
The geographer Pausanias  records that Athena placed the infant Erichthonius into a small chest  cista , which she entrusted to the care of the three daughters of Cecrops: Herse , Pandrosos , and Aglauros of Athens.
Erichthonius was one of the most important founding heroes of Athens  and the legend of the daughters of Cecrops was a cult myth linked to the rituals of the Arrhephoria festival.
Herodotus records that a serpent lived in a crevice on the north side of the summit of the Athenian Acropolis  and that the Athenians left a honey cake for it each month as an offering.
Herse, Aglaulus, and Pandrosus go to the temple to offer sacrifices to Athena. Hermes demands help from Aglaulus to seduce Herse.
Aglaulus demands money in exchange. Hermes gives her the money the sisters have already offered to Athena. When Hermes arrives to seduce Herse, Aglaulus stands in his way instead of helping him as she had agreed.
He turns her to stone. According to Pseudo-Apollodorus's Bibliotheca , Athena advised Argos , the builder of the Argo , the ship on which the hero Jason and his band of Argonauts sailed, and aided in the ship's construction.
In ancient Greek art , Athena is frequently shown aiding the hero Heracles. In The Odyssey , Odysseus ' cunning and shrewd nature quickly wins Athena's favour.
Her guiding actions reinforce her role as the "protectress of heroes," or, as mythologian Walter Friedrich Otto dubbed her, the "goddess of nearness," due to her mentoring and motherly probing.
She instructs Laertes to throw his spear and to kill Eupeithes , the father of Antinous. Athena and Heracles on an Attic red-figure kylix , — BC.
Athena, detail from a silver kantharos with Theseus in Crete c. Paestan red-figure bell-krater c. The Gorgoneion appears to have originated as an apotropaic symbol intended to ward off evil.
In his Twelfth Pythian Ode , Pindar recounts the story of how Athena invented the aulos , a kind of flute, in imitation of the lamentations of Medusa's sisters, the Gorgons, after she was beheaded by the hero Perseus.
A myth told by the early third-century BC Hellenistic poet Callimachus in his Hymn 5 begins with Athena bathing in a spring on Mount Helicon at midday with one of her favorite companions, the nymph Chariclo.
Athena wove the scene of her victory over Poseidon in the contest for the patronage of Athens. The myth of the Judgement of Paris is mentioned briefly in the Iliad ,  but is described in depth in an epitome of the Cypria , a lost poem of the Epic Cycle ,  which records that all the gods and goddesses as well as various mortals were invited to the marriage of Peleus and Thetis the eventual parents of Achilles.
The goddesses chose to place the matter before Zeus, who, not wanting to favor one of the goddesses, put the choice into the hands of Paris, a Trojan prince.
All three goddesses were ideally beautiful and Paris could not decide between them, so they resorted to bribes.
Athena appears frequently in classical Greek art, including on coins and in paintings on ceramics. The Mourning Athena or Athena Meditating is a famous relief sculpture dating to around BC   that has been interpreted to represent Athena Polias.
Attic black-figure exaleiptron of the birth of Athena from the head of Zeus c. Attic red-figure kylix of Athena Promachos holding a spear and standing beside a Doric column c.
Restoration of the polychrome decoration of the Athena statue from the Aphaea temple at Aegina , c. The Mourning Athena relief c.
Attic red-figure kylix showing Athena slaying the Gigante Enceladus c. Relief of Athena and Nike slaying the Gigante Alkyoneus?
Mythological scene with Athena left and Herakles right , on a stone palette of the Greco-Buddhist art of Gandhara , India.
Atena farnese , Roman copy of a Greek original from Phidias' circle, c. Early Christian writers such as Clement of Alexandria and Firmicus denigrated Athena as representative of all the things that were detestable about paganism;  they condemned her as "immodest and immoral".
During the Renaissance, Athena donned the mantle of patron of the arts and human endeavor;  allegorical paintings involving Athena were a favorite of the Italian Renaissance painters.
During the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, Athena was used as a symbol for female rulers. A statue of Athena stands directly in front of the Austrian Parliament Building in Vienna ,  and depictions of Athena have influenced other symbols of western freedom, including the Statue of Liberty and Britannia.
Pallas and the Centaur c. Athena Scorning the Advances of Hephaestus c. Minerva Victorious over Ignorance c. Minerva of Peace mosaic in the Library of Congress.
Athena on the Great Seal of California. One of Sigmund Freud 's most treasured possessions was a small, bronze statue of Athena, which sat on his desk.
Athena is a natural patron of universities: At Bryn Mawr College in Pennsylvania a statue of Athena a replica of the original bronze one in the arts and archaeology library resides in the Great Hall.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This is the latest accepted revision , reviewed on 3 November This article is about the Greek goddess.
For other uses, see Athena disambiguation. For other uses, see Athene disambiguation , Athina disambiguation , and Pallas Athena disambiguation. Mattei Athena at Louvre.
Bust of the Velletri Pallas type, copy after a votive statue of Kresilas in Athens c. Greek mythology portal Hellenismos portal.
Clement of Alexandria Protr. Detail of a cup in the Faina collection". Archived from the original on 5 November Guthrie , pp.
A glossary of Greek birds. The deaths of several Roman emperors, including the assassination of Julius Caesar, were signaled by an owl landing on the roof and hooting.
Athena in the Classical World. Retrieved 19 May Myths and Cult Images 2 ed. University of California Press. Robbins Dexter, Mirijam, ed. Birds in the Ancient World from A to Z.
A dictionary of the ancient Greek world. Retrieved 20 May Monumenta Graeca et Romana. Scholion to Aristophanes, Birds A glossary of Greek birds. Oxford, Clarendon Press , pp The story of Athens: The Fragments of the Local Chronicles of Attika.
The archaic owls of Athens: War and Society in the Greek World. Ovid's Metamorphoses, Books University of Oklahoma Press.
Retrieved 28 February Ancient Greek religion and mythology. Dragons in Greek mythology Greek mythological creatures Greek mythological figures List of minor Greek mythological figures.
Aphrodite Aphroditus Philotes Peitho. Angelia Arke Hermes Iris. Apate Dolos Hermes Momus. Circe Hecate Hermes Trismegistus Triple deity.
Acherusia Avernus Lake Lerna Lake. Bident Cap of invisibility. Ascalaphus Ceuthonymus Eurynomos Hade's cattle.
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